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Linux/arch/x86/kernel/setup.c

  1 /*
  2  *  Copyright (C) 1995  Linus Torvalds
  3  *
  4  *  Support of BIGMEM added by Gerhard Wichert, Siemens AG, July 1999
  5  *
  6  *  Memory region support
  7  *      David Parsons <orc@pell.chi.il.us>, July-August 1999
  8  *
  9  *  Added E820 sanitization routine (removes overlapping memory regions);
 10  *  Brian Moyle <bmoyle@mvista.com>, February 2001
 11  *
 12  * Moved CPU detection code to cpu/${cpu}.c
 13  *    Patrick Mochel <mochel@osdl.org>, March 2002
 14  *
 15  *  Provisions for empty E820 memory regions (reported by certain BIOSes).
 16  *  Alex Achenbach <xela@slit.de>, December 2002.
 17  *
 18  */
 19 
 20 /*
 21  * This file handles the architecture-dependent parts of initialization
 22  */
 23 
 24 #include <linux/sched.h>
 25 #include <linux/mm.h>
 26 #include <linux/mmzone.h>
 27 #include <linux/screen_info.h>
 28 #include <linux/ioport.h>
 29 #include <linux/acpi.h>
 30 #include <linux/sfi.h>
 31 #include <linux/apm_bios.h>
 32 #include <linux/initrd.h>
 33 #include <linux/bootmem.h>
 34 #include <linux/memblock.h>
 35 #include <linux/seq_file.h>
 36 #include <linux/console.h>
 37 #include <linux/root_dev.h>
 38 #include <linux/highmem.h>
 39 #include <linux/module.h>
 40 #include <linux/efi.h>
 41 #include <linux/init.h>
 42 #include <linux/edd.h>
 43 #include <linux/iscsi_ibft.h>
 44 #include <linux/nodemask.h>
 45 #include <linux/kexec.h>
 46 #include <linux/dmi.h>
 47 #include <linux/pfn.h>
 48 #include <linux/pci.h>
 49 #include <asm/pci-direct.h>
 50 #include <linux/init_ohci1394_dma.h>
 51 #include <linux/kvm_para.h>
 52 #include <linux/dma-contiguous.h>
 53 
 54 #include <linux/errno.h>
 55 #include <linux/kernel.h>
 56 #include <linux/stddef.h>
 57 #include <linux/unistd.h>
 58 #include <linux/ptrace.h>
 59 #include <linux/user.h>
 60 #include <linux/delay.h>
 61 
 62 #include <linux/kallsyms.h>
 63 #include <linux/cpufreq.h>
 64 #include <linux/dma-mapping.h>
 65 #include <linux/ctype.h>
 66 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 67 
 68 #include <linux/percpu.h>
 69 #include <linux/crash_dump.h>
 70 #include <linux/tboot.h>
 71 #include <linux/jiffies.h>
 72 
 73 #include <video/edid.h>
 74 
 75 #include <asm/mtrr.h>
 76 #include <asm/apic.h>
 77 #include <asm/realmode.h>
 78 #include <asm/e820.h>
 79 #include <asm/mpspec.h>
 80 #include <asm/setup.h>
 81 #include <asm/efi.h>
 82 #include <asm/timer.h>
 83 #include <asm/i8259.h>
 84 #include <asm/sections.h>
 85 #include <asm/io_apic.h>
 86 #include <asm/ist.h>
 87 #include <asm/setup_arch.h>
 88 #include <asm/bios_ebda.h>
 89 #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
 90 #include <asm/processor.h>
 91 #include <asm/bugs.h>
 92 #include <asm/kasan.h>
 93 
 94 #include <asm/vsyscall.h>
 95 #include <asm/cpu.h>
 96 #include <asm/desc.h>
 97 #include <asm/dma.h>
 98 #include <asm/iommu.h>
 99 #include <asm/gart.h>
100 #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
101 #include <asm/proto.h>
102 
103 #include <asm/paravirt.h>
104 #include <asm/hypervisor.h>
105 #include <asm/olpc_ofw.h>
106 
107 #include <asm/percpu.h>
108 #include <asm/topology.h>
109 #include <asm/apicdef.h>
110 #include <asm/amd_nb.h>
111 #include <asm/mce.h>
112 #include <asm/alternative.h>
113 #include <asm/prom.h>
114 
115 /*
116  * max_low_pfn_mapped: highest direct mapped pfn under 4GB
117  * max_pfn_mapped:     highest direct mapped pfn over 4GB
118  *
119  * The direct mapping only covers E820_RAM regions, so the ranges and gaps are
120  * represented by pfn_mapped
121  */
122 unsigned long max_low_pfn_mapped;
123 unsigned long max_pfn_mapped;
124 
125 #ifdef CONFIG_DMI
126 RESERVE_BRK(dmi_alloc, 65536);
127 #endif
128 
129 
130 static __initdata unsigned long _brk_start = (unsigned long)__brk_base;
131 unsigned long _brk_end = (unsigned long)__brk_base;
132 
133 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
134 int default_cpu_present_to_apicid(int mps_cpu)
135 {
136         return __default_cpu_present_to_apicid(mps_cpu);
137 }
138 
139 int default_check_phys_apicid_present(int phys_apicid)
140 {
141         return __default_check_phys_apicid_present(phys_apicid);
142 }
143 #endif
144 
145 struct boot_params boot_params;
146 
147 /*
148  * Machine setup..
149  */
150 static struct resource data_resource = {
151         .name   = "Kernel data",
152         .start  = 0,
153         .end    = 0,
154         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
155 };
156 
157 static struct resource code_resource = {
158         .name   = "Kernel code",
159         .start  = 0,
160         .end    = 0,
161         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
162 };
163 
164 static struct resource bss_resource = {
165         .name   = "Kernel bss",
166         .start  = 0,
167         .end    = 0,
168         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
169 };
170 
171 
172 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
173 /* cpu data as detected by the assembly code in head.S */
174 struct cpuinfo_x86 new_cpu_data = {
175         .wp_works_ok = -1,
176 };
177 /* common cpu data for all cpus */
178 struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data __read_mostly = {
179         .wp_works_ok = -1,
180 };
181 EXPORT_SYMBOL(boot_cpu_data);
182 
183 unsigned int def_to_bigsmp;
184 
185 /* for MCA, but anyone else can use it if they want */
186 unsigned int machine_id;
187 unsigned int machine_submodel_id;
188 unsigned int BIOS_revision;
189 
190 struct apm_info apm_info;
191 EXPORT_SYMBOL(apm_info);
192 
193 #if defined(CONFIG_X86_SPEEDSTEP_SMI) || \
194         defined(CONFIG_X86_SPEEDSTEP_SMI_MODULE)
195 struct ist_info ist_info;
196 EXPORT_SYMBOL(ist_info);
197 #else
198 struct ist_info ist_info;
199 #endif
200 
201 #else
202 struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data __read_mostly = {
203         .x86_phys_bits = MAX_PHYSMEM_BITS,
204 };
205 EXPORT_SYMBOL(boot_cpu_data);
206 #endif
207 
208 
209 #if !defined(CONFIG_X86_PAE) || defined(CONFIG_X86_64)
210 __visible unsigned long mmu_cr4_features;
211 #else
212 __visible unsigned long mmu_cr4_features = X86_CR4_PAE;
213 #endif
214 
215 /* Boot loader ID and version as integers, for the benefit of proc_dointvec */
216 int bootloader_type, bootloader_version;
217 
218 /*
219  * Setup options
220  */
221 struct screen_info screen_info;
222 EXPORT_SYMBOL(screen_info);
223 struct edid_info edid_info;
224 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(edid_info);
225 
226 extern int root_mountflags;
227 
228 unsigned long saved_video_mode;
229 
230 #define RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK        0x07FF
231 #define RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG             0x8000
232 #define RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG               0x4000
233 
234 static char __initdata command_line[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];
235 #ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_BOOL
236 static char __initdata builtin_cmdline[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE] = CONFIG_CMDLINE;
237 #endif
238 
239 #if defined(CONFIG_EDD) || defined(CONFIG_EDD_MODULE)
240 struct edd edd;
241 #ifdef CONFIG_EDD_MODULE
242 EXPORT_SYMBOL(edd);
243 #endif
244 /**
245  * copy_edd() - Copy the BIOS EDD information
246  *              from boot_params into a safe place.
247  *
248  */
249 static inline void __init copy_edd(void)
250 {
251      memcpy(edd.mbr_signature, boot_params.edd_mbr_sig_buffer,
252             sizeof(edd.mbr_signature));
253      memcpy(edd.edd_info, boot_params.eddbuf, sizeof(edd.edd_info));
254      edd.mbr_signature_nr = boot_params.edd_mbr_sig_buf_entries;
255      edd.edd_info_nr = boot_params.eddbuf_entries;
256 }
257 #else
258 static inline void __init copy_edd(void)
259 {
260 }
261 #endif
262 
263 void * __init extend_brk(size_t size, size_t align)
264 {
265         size_t mask = align - 1;
266         void *ret;
267 
268         BUG_ON(_brk_start == 0);
269         BUG_ON(align & mask);
270 
271         _brk_end = (_brk_end + mask) & ~mask;
272         BUG_ON((char *)(_brk_end + size) > __brk_limit);
273 
274         ret = (void *)_brk_end;
275         _brk_end += size;
276 
277         memset(ret, 0, size);
278 
279         return ret;
280 }
281 
282 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
283 static void __init cleanup_highmap(void)
284 {
285 }
286 #endif
287 
288 static void __init reserve_brk(void)
289 {
290         if (_brk_end > _brk_start)
291                 memblock_reserve(__pa_symbol(_brk_start),
292                                  _brk_end - _brk_start);
293 
294         /* Mark brk area as locked down and no longer taking any
295            new allocations */
296         _brk_start = 0;
297 }
298 
299 u64 relocated_ramdisk;
300 
301 #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
302 
303 static u64 __init get_ramdisk_image(void)
304 {
305         u64 ramdisk_image = boot_params.hdr.ramdisk_image;
306 
307         ramdisk_image |= (u64)boot_params.ext_ramdisk_image << 32;
308 
309         return ramdisk_image;
310 }
311 static u64 __init get_ramdisk_size(void)
312 {
313         u64 ramdisk_size = boot_params.hdr.ramdisk_size;
314 
315         ramdisk_size |= (u64)boot_params.ext_ramdisk_size << 32;
316 
317         return ramdisk_size;
318 }
319 
320 #define MAX_MAP_CHUNK   (NR_FIX_BTMAPS << PAGE_SHIFT)
321 static void __init relocate_initrd(void)
322 {
323         /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
324         u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
325         u64 ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
326         u64 area_size     = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_size);
327         unsigned long slop, clen, mapaddr;
328         char *p, *q;
329 
330         /* We need to move the initrd down into directly mapped mem */
331         relocated_ramdisk = memblock_find_in_range(0, PFN_PHYS(max_pfn_mapped),
332                                                    area_size, PAGE_SIZE);
333 
334         if (!relocated_ramdisk)
335                 panic("Cannot find place for new RAMDISK of size %lld\n",
336                       ramdisk_size);
337 
338         /* Note: this includes all the mem currently occupied by
339            the initrd, we rely on that fact to keep the data intact. */
340         memblock_reserve(relocated_ramdisk, area_size);
341         initrd_start = relocated_ramdisk + PAGE_OFFSET;
342         initrd_end   = initrd_start + ramdisk_size;
343         printk(KERN_INFO "Allocated new RAMDISK: [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n",
344                relocated_ramdisk, relocated_ramdisk + ramdisk_size - 1);
345 
346         q = (char *)initrd_start;
347 
348         /* Copy the initrd */
349         while (ramdisk_size) {
350                 slop = ramdisk_image & ~PAGE_MASK;
351                 clen = ramdisk_size;
352                 if (clen > MAX_MAP_CHUNK-slop)
353                         clen = MAX_MAP_CHUNK-slop;
354                 mapaddr = ramdisk_image & PAGE_MASK;
355                 p = early_memremap(mapaddr, clen+slop);
356                 memcpy(q, p+slop, clen);
357                 early_memunmap(p, clen+slop);
358                 q += clen;
359                 ramdisk_image += clen;
360                 ramdisk_size  -= clen;
361         }
362 
363         ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
364         ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
365         printk(KERN_INFO "Move RAMDISK from [mem %#010llx-%#010llx] to"
366                 " [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n",
367                 ramdisk_image, ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size - 1,
368                 relocated_ramdisk, relocated_ramdisk + ramdisk_size - 1);
369 }
370 
371 static void __init early_reserve_initrd(void)
372 {
373         /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
374         u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
375         u64 ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
376         u64 ramdisk_end   = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size);
377 
378         if (!boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader ||
379             !ramdisk_image || !ramdisk_size)
380                 return;         /* No initrd provided by bootloader */
381 
382         memblock_reserve(ramdisk_image, ramdisk_end - ramdisk_image);
383 }
384 static void __init reserve_initrd(void)
385 {
386         /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
387         u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
388         u64 ramdisk_size  = get_ramdisk_size();
389         u64 ramdisk_end   = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size);
390         u64 mapped_size;
391 
392         if (!boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader ||
393             !ramdisk_image || !ramdisk_size)
394                 return;         /* No initrd provided by bootloader */
395 
396         initrd_start = 0;
397 
398         mapped_size = memblock_mem_size(max_pfn_mapped);
399         if (ramdisk_size >= (mapped_size>>1))
400                 panic("initrd too large to handle, "
401                        "disabling initrd (%lld needed, %lld available)\n",
402                        ramdisk_size, mapped_size>>1);
403 
404         printk(KERN_INFO "RAMDISK: [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n", ramdisk_image,
405                         ramdisk_end - 1);
406 
407         if (pfn_range_is_mapped(PFN_DOWN(ramdisk_image),
408                                 PFN_DOWN(ramdisk_end))) {
409                 /* All are mapped, easy case */
410                 initrd_start = ramdisk_image + PAGE_OFFSET;
411                 initrd_end = initrd_start + ramdisk_size;
412                 return;
413         }
414 
415         relocate_initrd();
416 
417         memblock_free(ramdisk_image, ramdisk_end - ramdisk_image);
418 }
419 #else
420 static void __init early_reserve_initrd(void)
421 {
422 }
423 static void __init reserve_initrd(void)
424 {
425 }
426 #endif /* CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD */
427 
428 static void __init parse_setup_data(void)
429 {
430         struct setup_data *data;
431         u64 pa_data, pa_next;
432 
433         pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
434         while (pa_data) {
435                 u32 data_len, data_type;
436 
437                 data = early_memremap(pa_data, sizeof(*data));
438                 data_len = data->len + sizeof(struct setup_data);
439                 data_type = data->type;
440                 pa_next = data->next;
441                 early_memunmap(data, sizeof(*data));
442 
443                 switch (data_type) {
444                 case SETUP_E820_EXT:
445                         parse_e820_ext(pa_data, data_len);
446                         break;
447                 case SETUP_DTB:
448                         add_dtb(pa_data);
449                         break;
450                 case SETUP_EFI:
451                         parse_efi_setup(pa_data, data_len);
452                         break;
453                 default:
454                         break;
455                 }
456                 pa_data = pa_next;
457         }
458 }
459 
460 static void __init e820_reserve_setup_data(void)
461 {
462         struct setup_data *data;
463         u64 pa_data;
464 
465         pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
466         if (!pa_data)
467                 return;
468 
469         while (pa_data) {
470                 data = early_memremap(pa_data, sizeof(*data));
471                 e820_update_range(pa_data, sizeof(*data)+data->len,
472                          E820_RAM, E820_RESERVED_KERN);
473                 pa_data = data->next;
474                 early_memunmap(data, sizeof(*data));
475         }
476 
477         sanitize_e820_map(e820.map, ARRAY_SIZE(e820.map), &e820.nr_map);
478         memcpy(&e820_saved, &e820, sizeof(struct e820map));
479         printk(KERN_INFO "extended physical RAM map:\n");
480         e820_print_map("reserve setup_data");
481 }
482 
483 static void __init memblock_x86_reserve_range_setup_data(void)
484 {
485         struct setup_data *data;
486         u64 pa_data;
487 
488         pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
489         while (pa_data) {
490                 data = early_memremap(pa_data, sizeof(*data));
491                 memblock_reserve(pa_data, sizeof(*data) + data->len);
492                 pa_data = data->next;
493                 early_memunmap(data, sizeof(*data));
494         }
495 }
496 
497 /*
498  * --------- Crashkernel reservation ------------------------------
499  */
500 
501 #ifdef CONFIG_KEXEC
502 
503 /*
504  * Keep the crash kernel below this limit.  On 32 bits earlier kernels
505  * would limit the kernel to the low 512 MiB due to mapping restrictions.
506  * On 64bit, old kexec-tools need to under 896MiB.
507  */
508 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
509 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_LOW_MAX      (512 << 20)
510 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_HIGH_MAX     (512 << 20)
511 #else
512 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_LOW_MAX      (896UL<<20)
513 # define CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_HIGH_MAX     MAXMEM
514 #endif
515 
516 static void __init reserve_crashkernel_low(void)
517 {
518 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
519         const unsigned long long alignment = 16<<20;    /* 16M */
520         unsigned long long low_base = 0, low_size = 0;
521         unsigned long total_low_mem;
522         unsigned long long base;
523         bool auto_set = false;
524         int ret;
525 
526         total_low_mem = memblock_mem_size(1UL<<(32-PAGE_SHIFT));
527         /* crashkernel=Y,low */
528         ret = parse_crashkernel_low(boot_command_line, total_low_mem,
529                                                 &low_size, &base);
530         if (ret != 0) {
531                 /*
532                  * two parts from lib/swiotlb.c:
533                  * -swiotlb size: user-specified with swiotlb= or default.
534                  *
535                  * -swiotlb overflow buffer: now hardcoded to 32k. We round it
536                  * to 8M for other buffers that may need to stay low too. Also
537                  * make sure we allocate enough extra low memory so that we
538                  * don't run out of DMA buffers for 32-bit devices.
539                  */
540                 low_size = max(swiotlb_size_or_default() + (8UL<<20), 256UL<<20);
541                 auto_set = true;
542         } else {
543                 /* passed with crashkernel=0,low ? */
544                 if (!low_size)
545                         return;
546         }
547 
548         low_base = memblock_find_in_range(low_size, (1ULL<<32),
549                                         low_size, alignment);
550 
551         if (!low_base) {
552                 if (!auto_set)
553                         pr_info("crashkernel low reservation failed - No suitable area found.\n");
554 
555                 return;
556         }
557 
558         memblock_reserve(low_base, low_size);
559         pr_info("Reserving %ldMB of low memory at %ldMB for crashkernel (System low RAM: %ldMB)\n",
560                         (unsigned long)(low_size >> 20),
561                         (unsigned long)(low_base >> 20),
562                         (unsigned long)(total_low_mem >> 20));
563         crashk_low_res.start = low_base;
564         crashk_low_res.end   = low_base + low_size - 1;
565         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &crashk_low_res);
566 #endif
567 }
568 
569 static void __init reserve_crashkernel(void)
570 {
571         const unsigned long long alignment = 16<<20;    /* 16M */
572         unsigned long long total_mem;
573         unsigned long long crash_size, crash_base;
574         bool high = false;
575         int ret;
576 
577         total_mem = memblock_phys_mem_size();
578 
579         /* crashkernel=XM */
580         ret = parse_crashkernel(boot_command_line, total_mem,
581                         &crash_size, &crash_base);
582         if (ret != 0 || crash_size <= 0) {
583                 /* crashkernel=X,high */
584                 ret = parse_crashkernel_high(boot_command_line, total_mem,
585                                 &crash_size, &crash_base);
586                 if (ret != 0 || crash_size <= 0)
587                         return;
588                 high = true;
589         }
590 
591         /* 0 means: find the address automatically */
592         if (crash_base <= 0) {
593                 /*
594                  *  kexec want bzImage is below CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_MAX
595                  */
596                 crash_base = memblock_find_in_range(alignment,
597                                         high ? CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_HIGH_MAX :
598                                                CRASH_KERNEL_ADDR_LOW_MAX,
599                                         crash_size, alignment);
600 
601                 if (!crash_base) {
602                         pr_info("crashkernel reservation failed - No suitable area found.\n");
603                         return;
604                 }
605 
606         } else {
607                 unsigned long long start;
608 
609                 start = memblock_find_in_range(crash_base,
610                                  crash_base + crash_size, crash_size, 1<<20);
611                 if (start != crash_base) {
612                         pr_info("crashkernel reservation failed - memory is in use.\n");
613                         return;
614                 }
615         }
616         memblock_reserve(crash_base, crash_size);
617 
618         printk(KERN_INFO "Reserving %ldMB of memory at %ldMB "
619                         "for crashkernel (System RAM: %ldMB)\n",
620                         (unsigned long)(crash_size >> 20),
621                         (unsigned long)(crash_base >> 20),
622                         (unsigned long)(total_mem >> 20));
623 
624         crashk_res.start = crash_base;
625         crashk_res.end   = crash_base + crash_size - 1;
626         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &crashk_res);
627 
628         if (crash_base >= (1ULL<<32))
629                 reserve_crashkernel_low();
630 }
631 #else
632 static void __init reserve_crashkernel(void)
633 {
634 }
635 #endif
636 
637 static struct resource standard_io_resources[] = {
638         { .name = "dma1", .start = 0x00, .end = 0x1f,
639                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
640         { .name = "pic1", .start = 0x20, .end = 0x21,
641                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
642         { .name = "timer0", .start = 0x40, .end = 0x43,
643                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
644         { .name = "timer1", .start = 0x50, .end = 0x53,
645                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
646         { .name = "keyboard", .start = 0x60, .end = 0x60,
647                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
648         { .name = "keyboard", .start = 0x64, .end = 0x64,
649                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
650         { .name = "dma page reg", .start = 0x80, .end = 0x8f,
651                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
652         { .name = "pic2", .start = 0xa0, .end = 0xa1,
653                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
654         { .name = "dma2", .start = 0xc0, .end = 0xdf,
655                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
656         { .name = "fpu", .start = 0xf0, .end = 0xff,
657                 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO }
658 };
659 
660 void __init reserve_standard_io_resources(void)
661 {
662         int i;
663 
664         /* request I/O space for devices used on all i[345]86 PCs */
665         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(standard_io_resources); i++)
666                 request_resource(&ioport_resource, &standard_io_resources[i]);
667 
668 }
669 
670 static __init void reserve_ibft_region(void)
671 {
672         unsigned long addr, size = 0;
673 
674         addr = find_ibft_region(&size);
675 
676         if (size)
677                 memblock_reserve(addr, size);
678 }
679 
680 static bool __init snb_gfx_workaround_needed(void)
681 {
682 #ifdef CONFIG_PCI
683         int i;
684         u16 vendor, devid;
685         static const __initconst u16 snb_ids[] = {
686                 0x0102,
687                 0x0112,
688                 0x0122,
689                 0x0106,
690                 0x0116,
691                 0x0126,
692                 0x010a,
693         };
694 
695         /* Assume no if something weird is going on with PCI */
696         if (!early_pci_allowed())
697                 return false;
698 
699         vendor = read_pci_config_16(0, 2, 0, PCI_VENDOR_ID);
700         if (vendor != 0x8086)
701                 return false;
702 
703         devid = read_pci_config_16(0, 2, 0, PCI_DEVICE_ID);
704         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(snb_ids); i++)
705                 if (devid == snb_ids[i])
706                         return true;
707 #endif
708 
709         return false;
710 }
711 
712 /*
713  * Sandy Bridge graphics has trouble with certain ranges, exclude
714  * them from allocation.
715  */
716 static void __init trim_snb_memory(void)
717 {
718         static const __initconst unsigned long bad_pages[] = {
719                 0x20050000,
720                 0x20110000,
721                 0x20130000,
722                 0x20138000,
723                 0x40004000,
724         };
725         int i;
726 
727         if (!snb_gfx_workaround_needed())
728                 return;
729 
730         printk(KERN_DEBUG "reserving inaccessible SNB gfx pages\n");
731 
732         /*
733          * Reserve all memory below the 1 MB mark that has not
734          * already been reserved.
735          */
736         memblock_reserve(0, 1<<20);
737         
738         for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(bad_pages); i++) {
739                 if (memblock_reserve(bad_pages[i], PAGE_SIZE))
740                         printk(KERN_WARNING "failed to reserve 0x%08lx\n",
741                                bad_pages[i]);
742         }
743 }
744 
745 /*
746  * Here we put platform-specific memory range workarounds, i.e.
747  * memory known to be corrupt or otherwise in need to be reserved on
748  * specific platforms.
749  *
750  * If this gets used more widely it could use a real dispatch mechanism.
751  */
752 static void __init trim_platform_memory_ranges(void)
753 {
754         trim_snb_memory();
755 }
756 
757 static void __init trim_bios_range(void)
758 {
759         /*
760          * A special case is the first 4Kb of memory;
761          * This is a BIOS owned area, not kernel ram, but generally
762          * not listed as such in the E820 table.
763          *
764          * This typically reserves additional memory (64KiB by default)
765          * since some BIOSes are known to corrupt low memory.  See the
766          * Kconfig help text for X86_RESERVE_LOW.
767          */
768         e820_update_range(0, PAGE_SIZE, E820_RAM, E820_RESERVED);
769 
770         /*
771          * special case: Some BIOSen report the PC BIOS
772          * area (640->1Mb) as ram even though it is not.
773          * take them out.
774          */
775         e820_remove_range(BIOS_BEGIN, BIOS_END - BIOS_BEGIN, E820_RAM, 1);
776 
777         sanitize_e820_map(e820.map, ARRAY_SIZE(e820.map), &e820.nr_map);
778 }
779 
780 /* called before trim_bios_range() to spare extra sanitize */
781 static void __init e820_add_kernel_range(void)
782 {
783         u64 start = __pa_symbol(_text);
784         u64 size = __pa_symbol(_end) - start;
785 
786         /*
787          * Complain if .text .data and .bss are not marked as E820_RAM and
788          * attempt to fix it by adding the range. We may have a confused BIOS,
789          * or the user may have used memmap=exactmap or memmap=xxM$yyM to
790          * exclude kernel range. If we really are running on top non-RAM,
791          * we will crash later anyways.
792          */
793         if (e820_all_mapped(start, start + size, E820_RAM))
794                 return;
795 
796         pr_warn(".text .data .bss are not marked as E820_RAM!\n");
797         e820_remove_range(start, size, E820_RAM, 0);
798         e820_add_region(start, size, E820_RAM);
799 }
800 
801 static unsigned reserve_low = CONFIG_X86_RESERVE_LOW << 10;
802 
803 static int __init parse_reservelow(char *p)
804 {
805         unsigned long long size;
806 
807         if (!p)
808                 return -EINVAL;
809 
810         size = memparse(p, &p);
811 
812         if (size < 4096)
813                 size = 4096;
814 
815         if (size > 640*1024)
816                 size = 640*1024;
817 
818         reserve_low = size;
819 
820         return 0;
821 }
822 
823 early_param("reservelow", parse_reservelow);
824 
825 static void __init trim_low_memory_range(void)
826 {
827         memblock_reserve(0, ALIGN(reserve_low, PAGE_SIZE));
828 }
829         
830 /*
831  * Dump out kernel offset information on panic.
832  */
833 static int
834 dump_kernel_offset(struct notifier_block *self, unsigned long v, void *p)
835 {
836         if (kaslr_enabled()) {
837                 pr_emerg("Kernel Offset: 0x%lx from 0x%lx (relocation range: 0x%lx-0x%lx)\n",
838                          kaslr_offset(),
839                          __START_KERNEL,
840                          __START_KERNEL_map,
841                          MODULES_VADDR-1);
842         } else {
843                 pr_emerg("Kernel Offset: disabled\n");
844         }
845 
846         return 0;
847 }
848 
849 /*
850  * Determine if we were loaded by an EFI loader.  If so, then we have also been
851  * passed the efi memmap, systab, etc., so we should use these data structures
852  * for initialization.  Note, the efi init code path is determined by the
853  * global efi_enabled. This allows the same kernel image to be used on existing
854  * systems (with a traditional BIOS) as well as on EFI systems.
855  */
856 /*
857  * setup_arch - architecture-specific boot-time initializations
858  *
859  * Note: On x86_64, fixmaps are ready for use even before this is called.
860  */
861 
862 void __init setup_arch(char **cmdline_p)
863 {
864         memblock_reserve(__pa_symbol(_text),
865                          (unsigned long)__bss_stop - (unsigned long)_text);
866 
867         early_reserve_initrd();
868 
869         /*
870          * At this point everything still needed from the boot loader
871          * or BIOS or kernel text should be early reserved or marked not
872          * RAM in e820. All other memory is free game.
873          */
874 
875 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
876         memcpy(&boot_cpu_data, &new_cpu_data, sizeof(new_cpu_data));
877 
878         /*
879          * copy kernel address range established so far and switch
880          * to the proper swapper page table
881          */
882         clone_pgd_range(swapper_pg_dir     + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
883                         initial_page_table + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
884                         KERNEL_PGD_PTRS);
885 
886         load_cr3(swapper_pg_dir);
887         /*
888          * Note: Quark X1000 CPUs advertise PGE incorrectly and require
889          * a cr3 based tlb flush, so the following __flush_tlb_all()
890          * will not flush anything because the cpu quirk which clears
891          * X86_FEATURE_PGE has not been invoked yet. Though due to the
892          * load_cr3() above the TLB has been flushed already. The
893          * quirk is invoked before subsequent calls to __flush_tlb_all()
894          * so proper operation is guaranteed.
895          */
896         __flush_tlb_all();
897 #else
898         printk(KERN_INFO "Command line: %s\n", boot_command_line);
899 #endif
900 
901         /*
902          * If we have OLPC OFW, we might end up relocating the fixmap due to
903          * reserve_top(), so do this before touching the ioremap area.
904          */
905         olpc_ofw_detect();
906 
907         early_trap_init();
908         early_cpu_init();
909         early_ioremap_init();
910 
911         setup_olpc_ofw_pgd();
912 
913         ROOT_DEV = old_decode_dev(boot_params.hdr.root_dev);
914         screen_info = boot_params.screen_info;
915         edid_info = boot_params.edid_info;
916 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
917         apm_info.bios = boot_params.apm_bios_info;
918         ist_info = boot_params.ist_info;
919         if (boot_params.sys_desc_table.length != 0) {
920                 machine_id = boot_params.sys_desc_table.table[0];
921                 machine_submodel_id = boot_params.sys_desc_table.table[1];
922                 BIOS_revision = boot_params.sys_desc_table.table[2];
923         }
924 #endif
925         saved_video_mode = boot_params.hdr.vid_mode;
926         bootloader_type = boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader;
927         if ((bootloader_type >> 4) == 0xe) {
928                 bootloader_type &= 0xf;
929                 bootloader_type |= (boot_params.hdr.ext_loader_type+0x10) << 4;
930         }
931         bootloader_version  = bootloader_type & 0xf;
932         bootloader_version |= boot_params.hdr.ext_loader_ver << 4;
933 
934 #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
935         rd_image_start = boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
936         rd_prompt = ((boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
937         rd_doload = ((boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);
938 #endif
939 #ifdef CONFIG_EFI
940         if (!strncmp((char *)&boot_params.efi_info.efi_loader_signature,
941                      EFI32_LOADER_SIGNATURE, 4)) {
942                 set_bit(EFI_BOOT, &efi.flags);
943         } else if (!strncmp((char *)&boot_params.efi_info.efi_loader_signature,
944                      EFI64_LOADER_SIGNATURE, 4)) {
945                 set_bit(EFI_BOOT, &efi.flags);
946                 set_bit(EFI_64BIT, &efi.flags);
947         }
948 
949         if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
950                 efi_memblock_x86_reserve_range();
951 #endif
952 
953         x86_init.oem.arch_setup();
954 
955         iomem_resource.end = (1ULL << boot_cpu_data.x86_phys_bits) - 1;
956         setup_memory_map();
957         parse_setup_data();
958 
959         copy_edd();
960 
961         if (!boot_params.hdr.root_flags)
962                 root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
963         init_mm.start_code = (unsigned long) _text;
964         init_mm.end_code = (unsigned long) _etext;
965         init_mm.end_data = (unsigned long) _edata;
966         init_mm.brk = _brk_end;
967 
968         mpx_mm_init(&init_mm);
969 
970         code_resource.start = __pa_symbol(_text);
971         code_resource.end = __pa_symbol(_etext)-1;
972         data_resource.start = __pa_symbol(_etext);
973         data_resource.end = __pa_symbol(_edata)-1;
974         bss_resource.start = __pa_symbol(__bss_start);
975         bss_resource.end = __pa_symbol(__bss_stop)-1;
976 
977 #ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_BOOL
978 #ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_OVERRIDE
979         strlcpy(boot_command_line, builtin_cmdline, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
980 #else
981         if (builtin_cmdline[0]) {
982                 /* append boot loader cmdline to builtin */
983                 strlcat(builtin_cmdline, " ", COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
984                 strlcat(builtin_cmdline, boot_command_line, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
985                 strlcpy(boot_command_line, builtin_cmdline, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
986         }
987 #endif
988 #endif
989 
990         strlcpy(command_line, boot_command_line, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
991         *cmdline_p = command_line;
992 
993         /*
994          * x86_configure_nx() is called before parse_early_param() to detect
995          * whether hardware doesn't support NX (so that the early EHCI debug
996          * console setup can safely call set_fixmap()). It may then be called
997          * again from within noexec_setup() during parsing early parameters
998          * to honor the respective command line option.
999          */
1000         x86_configure_nx();
1001 
1002         parse_early_param();
1003 
1004         x86_report_nx();
1005 
1006         /* after early param, so could get panic from serial */
1007         memblock_x86_reserve_range_setup_data();
1008 
1009         if (acpi_mps_check()) {
1010 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
1011                 disable_apic = 1;
1012 #endif
1013                 setup_clear_cpu_cap(X86_FEATURE_APIC);
1014         }
1015 
1016 #ifdef CONFIG_PCI
1017         if (pci_early_dump_regs)
1018                 early_dump_pci_devices();
1019 #endif
1020 
1021         /* update the e820_saved too */
1022         e820_reserve_setup_data();
1023         finish_e820_parsing();
1024 
1025         if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
1026                 efi_init();
1027 
1028         dmi_scan_machine();
1029         dmi_memdev_walk();
1030         dmi_set_dump_stack_arch_desc();
1031 
1032         /*
1033          * VMware detection requires dmi to be available, so this
1034          * needs to be done after dmi_scan_machine, for the BP.
1035          */
1036         init_hypervisor_platform();
1037 
1038         x86_init.resources.probe_roms();
1039 
1040         /* after parse_early_param, so could debug it */
1041         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &code_resource);
1042         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &data_resource);
1043         insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &bss_resource);
1044 
1045         e820_add_kernel_range();
1046         trim_bios_range();
1047 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1048         if (ppro_with_ram_bug()) {
1049                 e820_update_range(0x70000000ULL, 0x40000ULL, E820_RAM,
1050                                   E820_RESERVED);
1051                 sanitize_e820_map(e820.map, ARRAY_SIZE(e820.map), &e820.nr_map);
1052                 printk(KERN_INFO "fixed physical RAM map:\n");
1053                 e820_print_map("bad_ppro");
1054         }
1055 #else
1056         early_gart_iommu_check();
1057 #endif
1058 
1059         /*
1060          * partially used pages are not usable - thus
1061          * we are rounding upwards:
1062          */
1063         max_pfn = e820_end_of_ram_pfn();
1064 
1065         /* update e820 for memory not covered by WB MTRRs */
1066         mtrr_bp_init();
1067         if (mtrr_trim_uncached_memory(max_pfn))
1068                 max_pfn = e820_end_of_ram_pfn();
1069 
1070 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1071         /* max_low_pfn get updated here */
1072         find_low_pfn_range();
1073 #else
1074         check_x2apic();
1075 
1076         /* How many end-of-memory variables you have, grandma! */
1077         /* need this before calling reserve_initrd */
1078         if (max_pfn > (1UL<<(32 - PAGE_SHIFT)))
1079                 max_low_pfn = e820_end_of_low_ram_pfn();
1080         else
1081                 max_low_pfn = max_pfn;
1082 
1083         high_memory = (void *)__va(max_pfn * PAGE_SIZE - 1) + 1;
1084 #endif
1085 
1086         /*
1087          * Find and reserve possible boot-time SMP configuration:
1088          */
1089         find_smp_config();
1090 
1091         reserve_ibft_region();
1092 
1093         early_alloc_pgt_buf();
1094 
1095         /*
1096          * Need to conclude brk, before memblock_x86_fill()
1097          *  it could use memblock_find_in_range, could overlap with
1098          *  brk area.
1099          */
1100         reserve_brk();
1101 
1102         cleanup_highmap();
1103 
1104         memblock_set_current_limit(ISA_END_ADDRESS);
1105         memblock_x86_fill();
1106 
1107         if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
1108                 efi_find_mirror();
1109 
1110         /*
1111          * The EFI specification says that boot service code won't be called
1112          * after ExitBootServices(). This is, in fact, a lie.
1113          */
1114         if (efi_enabled(EFI_MEMMAP))
1115                 efi_reserve_boot_services();
1116 
1117         /* preallocate 4k for mptable mpc */
1118         early_reserve_e820_mpc_new();
1119 
1120 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_CHECK_BIOS_CORRUPTION
1121         setup_bios_corruption_check();
1122 #endif
1123 
1124 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1125         printk(KERN_DEBUG "initial memory mapped: [mem 0x00000000-%#010lx]\n",
1126                         (max_pfn_mapped<<PAGE_SHIFT) - 1);
1127 #endif
1128 
1129         reserve_real_mode();
1130 
1131         trim_platform_memory_ranges();
1132         trim_low_memory_range();
1133 
1134         init_mem_mapping();
1135 
1136         early_trap_pf_init();
1137 
1138         setup_real_mode();
1139 
1140         memblock_set_current_limit(get_max_mapped());
1141 
1142         /*
1143          * NOTE: On x86-32, only from this point on, fixmaps are ready for use.
1144          */
1145 
1146 #ifdef CONFIG_PROVIDE_OHCI1394_DMA_INIT
1147         if (init_ohci1394_dma_early)
1148                 init_ohci1394_dma_on_all_controllers();
1149 #endif
1150         /* Allocate bigger log buffer */
1151         setup_log_buf(1);
1152 
1153         reserve_initrd();
1154 
1155 #if defined(CONFIG_ACPI) && defined(CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD)
1156         acpi_initrd_override((void *)initrd_start, initrd_end - initrd_start);
1157 #endif
1158 
1159         vsmp_init();
1160 
1161         io_delay_init();
1162 
1163         /*
1164          * Parse the ACPI tables for possible boot-time SMP configuration.
1165          */
1166         acpi_boot_table_init();
1167 
1168         early_acpi_boot_init();
1169 
1170         initmem_init();
1171         dma_contiguous_reserve(max_pfn_mapped << PAGE_SHIFT);
1172 
1173         /*
1174          * Reserve memory for crash kernel after SRAT is parsed so that it
1175          * won't consume hotpluggable memory.
1176          */
1177         reserve_crashkernel();
1178 
1179         memblock_find_dma_reserve();
1180 
1181 #ifdef CONFIG_KVM_GUEST
1182         kvmclock_init();
1183 #endif
1184 
1185         x86_init.paging.pagetable_init();
1186 
1187         kasan_init();
1188 
1189         if (boot_cpu_data.cpuid_level >= 0) {
1190                 /* A CPU has %cr4 if and only if it has CPUID */
1191                 mmu_cr4_features = __read_cr4();
1192                 if (trampoline_cr4_features)
1193                         *trampoline_cr4_features = mmu_cr4_features;
1194         }
1195 
1196 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1197         /* sync back kernel address range */
1198         clone_pgd_range(initial_page_table + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
1199                         swapper_pg_dir     + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
1200                         KERNEL_PGD_PTRS);
1201 #endif
1202 
1203         tboot_probe();
1204 
1205         map_vsyscall();
1206 
1207         generic_apic_probe();
1208 
1209         early_quirks();
1210 
1211         /*
1212          * Read APIC and some other early information from ACPI tables.
1213          */
1214         acpi_boot_init();
1215         sfi_init();
1216         x86_dtb_init();
1217 
1218         /*
1219          * get boot-time SMP configuration:
1220          */
1221         if (smp_found_config)
1222                 get_smp_config();
1223 
1224         prefill_possible_map();
1225 
1226         init_cpu_to_node();
1227 
1228         init_apic_mappings();
1229         io_apic_init_mappings();
1230 
1231         kvm_guest_init();
1232 
1233         e820_reserve_resources();
1234         e820_mark_nosave_regions(max_low_pfn);
1235 
1236         x86_init.resources.reserve_resources();
1237 
1238         e820_setup_gap();
1239 
1240 #ifdef CONFIG_VT
1241 #if defined(CONFIG_VGA_CONSOLE)
1242         if (!efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT) || (efi_mem_type(0xa0000) != EFI_CONVENTIONAL_MEMORY))
1243                 conswitchp = &vga_con;
1244 #elif defined(CONFIG_DUMMY_CONSOLE)
1245         conswitchp = &dummy_con;
1246 #endif
1247 #endif
1248         x86_init.oem.banner();
1249 
1250         x86_init.timers.wallclock_init();
1251 
1252         mcheck_init();
1253 
1254         arch_init_ideal_nops();
1255 
1256         register_refined_jiffies(CLOCK_TICK_RATE);
1257 
1258 #ifdef CONFIG_EFI
1259         if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
1260                 efi_apply_memmap_quirks();
1261 #endif
1262 }
1263 
1264 #ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1265 
1266 static struct resource video_ram_resource = {
1267         .name   = "Video RAM area",
1268         .start  = 0xa0000,
1269         .end    = 0xbffff,
1270         .flags  = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
1271 };
1272 
1273 void __init i386_reserve_resources(void)
1274 {
1275         request_resource(&iomem_resource, &video_ram_resource);
1276         reserve_standard_io_resources();
1277 }
1278 
1279 #endif /* CONFIG_X86_32 */
1280 
1281 static struct notifier_block kernel_offset_notifier = {
1282         .notifier_call = dump_kernel_offset
1283 };
1284 
1285 static int __init register_kernel_offset_dumper(void)
1286 {
1287         atomic_notifier_chain_register(&panic_notifier_list,
1288                                         &kernel_offset_notifier);
1289         return 0;
1290 }
1291 __initcall(register_kernel_offset_dumper);
1292 

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