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Linux/Documentation/ldm.txt

  1 
  2             LDM - Logical Disk Manager (Dynamic Disks)
  3             ------------------------------------------
  4 
  5 Originally Written by FlatCap - Richard Russon <ldm@flatcap.org>.
  6 Last Updated by Anton Altaparmakov on 30 March 2007 for Windows Vista.
  7 
  8 Overview
  9 --------
 10 
 11 Windows 2000, XP, and Vista use a new partitioning scheme.  It is a complete
 12 replacement for the MSDOS style partitions.  It stores its information in a
 13 1MiB journalled database at the end of the physical disk.  The size of
 14 partitions is limited only by disk space.  The maximum number of partitions is
 15 nearly 2000.
 16 
 17 Any partitions created under the LDM are called "Dynamic Disks".  There are no
 18 longer any primary or extended partitions.  Normal MSDOS style partitions are
 19 now known as Basic Disks.
 20 
 21 If you wish to use Spanned, Striped, Mirrored or RAID 5 Volumes, you must use
 22 Dynamic Disks.  The journalling allows Windows to make changes to these
 23 partitions and filesystems without the need to reboot.
 24 
 25 Once the LDM driver has divided up the disk, you can use the MD driver to
 26 assemble any multi-partition volumes, e.g.  Stripes, RAID5.
 27 
 28 To prevent legacy applications from repartitioning the disk, the LDM creates a
 29 dummy MSDOS partition containing one disk-sized partition.  This is what is
 30 supported with the Linux LDM driver.
 31 
 32 A newer approach that has been implemented with Vista is to put LDM on top of a
 33 GPT label disk.  This is not supported by the Linux LDM driver yet.
 34 
 35 
 36 Example
 37 -------
 38 
 39 Below we have a 50MiB disk, divided into seven partitions.
 40 N.B.  The missing 1MiB at the end of the disk is where the LDM database is
 41       stored.
 42 
 43   Device | Offset Bytes  Sectors  MiB | Size   Bytes  Sectors  MiB
 44   -------+----------------------------+---------------------------
 45   hda    |            0        0    0 |     52428800   102400   50
 46   hda1   |     51380224   100352   49 |      1048576     2048    1
 47   hda2   |        16384       32    0 |      6979584    13632    6
 48   hda3   |      6995968    13664    6 |     10485760    20480   10
 49   hda4   |     17481728    34144   16 |      4194304     8192    4
 50   hda5   |     21676032    42336   20 |      5242880    10240    5
 51   hda6   |     26918912    52576   25 |     10485760    20480   10
 52   hda7   |     37404672    73056   35 |     13959168    27264   13
 53 
 54 The LDM Database may not store the partitions in the order that they appear on
 55 disk, but the driver will sort them.
 56 
 57 When Linux boots, you will see something like:
 58 
 59   hda: 102400 sectors w/32KiB Cache, CHS=50/64/32
 60   hda: [LDM] hda1 hda2 hda3 hda4 hda5 hda6 hda7
 61 
 62 
 63 Compiling LDM Support
 64 ---------------------
 65 
 66 To enable LDM, choose the following two options: 
 67 
 68   "Advanced partition selection" CONFIG_PARTITION_ADVANCED
 69   "Windows Logical Disk Manager (Dynamic Disk) support" CONFIG_LDM_PARTITION
 70 
 71 If you believe the driver isn't working as it should, you can enable the extra
 72 debugging code.  This will produce a LOT of output.  The option is:
 73 
 74   "Windows LDM extra logging" CONFIG_LDM_DEBUG
 75 
 76 N.B. The partition code cannot be compiled as a module.
 77 
 78 As with all the partition code, if the driver doesn't see signs of its type of
 79 partition, it will pass control to another driver, so there is no harm in
 80 enabling it.
 81 
 82 If you have Dynamic Disks but don't enable the driver, then all you will see
 83 is a dummy MSDOS partition filling the whole disk.  You won't be able to mount
 84 any of the volumes on the disk.
 85 
 86 
 87 Booting
 88 -------
 89 
 90 If you enable LDM support, then lilo is capable of booting from any of the
 91 discovered partitions.  However, grub does not understand the LDM partitioning
 92 and cannot boot from a Dynamic Disk.
 93 
 94 
 95 More Documentation
 96 ------------------
 97 
 98 There is an Overview of the LDM together with complete Technical Documentation.
 99 It is available for download.
100 
101   http://www.linux-ntfs.org/
102 
103 If you have any LDM questions that aren't answered in the documentation, email
104 me.
105 
106 Cheers,
107     FlatCap - Richard Russon
108     ldm@flatcap.org
109 

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