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Linux/Documentation/Changes

  1 .. _changes:
  2 
  3 Minimal requirements to compile the Kernel
  4 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
  5 
  6 Intro
  7 =====
  8 
  9 This document is designed to provide a list of the minimum levels of
 10 software necessary to run the 4.x kernels.
 11 
 12 This document is originally based on my "Changes" file for 2.0.x kernels
 13 and therefore owes credit to the same people as that file (Jared Mauch,
 14 Axel Boldt, Alessandro Sigala, and countless other users all over the
 15 'net).
 16 
 17 Current Minimal Requirements
 18 ****************************
 19 
 20 Upgrade to at **least** these software revisions before thinking you've
 21 encountered a bug!  If you're unsure what version you're currently
 22 running, the suggested command should tell you.
 23 
 24 Again, keep in mind that this list assumes you are already functionally
 25 running a Linux kernel.  Also, not all tools are necessary on all
 26 systems; obviously, if you don't have any ISDN hardware, for example,
 27 you probably needn't concern yourself with isdn4k-utils.
 28 
 29 ====================== ===============  ========================================
 30         Program        Minimal version       Command to check the version
 31 ====================== ===============  ========================================
 32 GNU C                  3.2              gcc --version
 33 GNU make               3.80             make --version
 34 binutils               2.12             ld -v
 35 util-linux             2.10o            fdformat --version
 36 module-init-tools      0.9.10           depmod -V
 37 e2fsprogs              1.41.4           e2fsck -V
 38 jfsutils               1.1.3            fsck.jfs -V
 39 reiserfsprogs          3.6.3            reiserfsck -V
 40 xfsprogs               2.6.0            xfs_db -V
 41 squashfs-tools         4.0              mksquashfs -version
 42 btrfs-progs            0.18             btrfsck
 43 pcmciautils            004              pccardctl -V
 44 quota-tools            3.09             quota -V
 45 PPP                    2.4.0            pppd --version
 46 isdn4k-utils           3.1pre1          isdnctrl 2>&1|grep version
 47 nfs-utils              1.0.5            showmount --version
 48 procps                 3.2.0            ps --version
 49 oprofile               0.9              oprofiled --version
 50 udev                   081              udevd --version
 51 grub                   0.93             grub --version || grub-install --version
 52 mcelog                 0.6              mcelog --version
 53 iptables               1.4.2            iptables -V
 54 openssl & libcrypto    1.0.0            openssl version
 55 bc                     1.06.95          bc --version
 56 Sphinx\ [#f1]_         1.2              sphinx-build --version
 57 ====================== ===============  ========================================
 58 
 59 .. [#f1] Sphinx is needed only to build the Kernel documentation
 60 
 61 Kernel compilation
 62 ******************
 63 
 64 GCC
 65 ---
 66 
 67 The gcc version requirements may vary depending on the type of CPU in your
 68 computer.
 69 
 70 Make
 71 ----
 72 
 73 You will need GNU make 3.80 or later to build the kernel.
 74 
 75 Binutils
 76 --------
 77 
 78 Linux on IA-32 has recently switched from using ``as86`` to using ``gas`` for
 79 assembling the 16-bit boot code, removing the need for ``as86`` to compile
 80 your kernel.  This change does, however, mean that you need a recent
 81 release of binutils.
 82 
 83 Perl
 84 ----
 85 
 86 You will need perl 5 and the following modules: ``Getopt::Long``,
 87 ``Getopt::Std``, ``File::Basename``, and ``File::Find`` to build the kernel.
 88 
 89 BC
 90 --
 91 
 92 You will need bc to build kernels 3.10 and higher
 93 
 94 
 95 OpenSSL
 96 -------
 97 
 98 Module signing and external certificate handling use the OpenSSL program and
 99 crypto library to do key creation and signature generation.
100 
101 You will need openssl to build kernels 3.7 and higher if module signing is
102 enabled.  You will also need openssl development packages to build kernels 4.3
103 and higher.
104 
105 
106 System utilities
107 ****************
108 
109 Architectural changes
110 ---------------------
111 
112 DevFS has been obsoleted in favour of udev
113 (http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/)
114 
115 32-bit UID support is now in place.  Have fun!
116 
117 Linux documentation for functions is transitioning to inline
118 documentation via specially-formatted comments near their
119 definitions in the source.  These comments can be combined with the
120 SGML templates in the Documentation/DocBook directory to make DocBook
121 files, which can then be converted by DocBook stylesheets to PostScript,
122 HTML, PDF files, and several other formats.  In order to convert from
123 DocBook format to a format of your choice, you'll need to install Jade as
124 well as the desired DocBook stylesheets.
125 
126 Util-linux
127 ----------
128 
129 New versions of util-linux provide ``fdisk`` support for larger disks,
130 support new options to mount, recognize more supported partition
131 types, have a fdformat which works with 2.4 kernels, and similar goodies.
132 You'll probably want to upgrade.
133 
134 Ksymoops
135 --------
136 
137 If the unthinkable happens and your kernel oopses, you may need the
138 ksymoops tool to decode it, but in most cases you don't.
139 It is generally preferred to build the kernel with ``CONFIG_KALLSYMS`` so
140 that it produces readable dumps that can be used as-is (this also
141 produces better output than ksymoops).  If for some reason your kernel
142 is not build with ``CONFIG_KALLSYMS`` and you have no way to rebuild and
143 reproduce the Oops with that option, then you can still decode that Oops
144 with ksymoops.
145 
146 Module-Init-Tools
147 -----------------
148 
149 A new module loader is now in the kernel that requires ``module-init-tools``
150 to use.  It is backward compatible with the 2.4.x series kernels.
151 
152 Mkinitrd
153 --------
154 
155 These changes to the ``/lib/modules`` file tree layout also require that
156 mkinitrd be upgraded.
157 
158 E2fsprogs
159 ---------
160 
161 The latest version of ``e2fsprogs`` fixes several bugs in fsck and
162 debugfs.  Obviously, it's a good idea to upgrade.
163 
164 JFSutils
165 --------
166 
167 The ``jfsutils`` package contains the utilities for the file system.
168 The following utilities are available:
169 
170 - ``fsck.jfs`` - initiate replay of the transaction log, and check
171   and repair a JFS formatted partition.
172 
173 - ``mkfs.jfs`` - create a JFS formatted partition.
174 
175 - other file system utilities are also available in this package.
176 
177 Reiserfsprogs
178 -------------
179 
180 The reiserfsprogs package should be used for reiserfs-3.6.x
181 (Linux kernels 2.4.x). It is a combined package and contains working
182 versions of ``mkreiserfs``, ``resize_reiserfs``, ``debugreiserfs`` and
183 ``reiserfsck``. These utils work on both i386 and alpha platforms.
184 
185 Xfsprogs
186 --------
187 
188 The latest version of ``xfsprogs`` contains ``mkfs.xfs``, ``xfs_db``, and the
189 ``xfs_repair`` utilities, among others, for the XFS filesystem.  It is
190 architecture independent and any version from 2.0.0 onward should
191 work correctly with this version of the XFS kernel code (2.6.0 or
192 later is recommended, due to some significant improvements).
193 
194 PCMCIAutils
195 -----------
196 
197 PCMCIAutils replaces ``pcmcia-cs``. It properly sets up
198 PCMCIA sockets at system startup and loads the appropriate modules
199 for 16-bit PCMCIA devices if the kernel is modularized and the hotplug
200 subsystem is used.
201 
202 Quota-tools
203 -----------
204 
205 Support for 32 bit uid's and gid's is required if you want to use
206 the newer version 2 quota format.  Quota-tools version 3.07 and
207 newer has this support.  Use the recommended version or newer
208 from the table above.
209 
210 Intel IA32 microcode
211 --------------------
212 
213 A driver has been added to allow updating of Intel IA32 microcode,
214 accessible as a normal (misc) character device.  If you are not using
215 udev you may need to::
216 
217   mkdir /dev/cpu
218   mknod /dev/cpu/microcode c 10 184
219   chmod 0644 /dev/cpu/microcode
220 
221 as root before you can use this.  You'll probably also want to
222 get the user-space microcode_ctl utility to use with this.
223 
224 udev
225 ----
226 
227 ``udev`` is a userspace application for populating ``/dev`` dynamically with
228 only entries for devices actually present. ``udev`` replaces the basic
229 functionality of devfs, while allowing persistent device naming for
230 devices.
231 
232 FUSE
233 ----
234 
235 Needs libfuse 2.4.0 or later.  Absolute minimum is 2.3.0 but mount
236 options ``direct_io`` and ``kernel_cache`` won't work.
237 
238 Networking
239 **********
240 
241 General changes
242 ---------------
243 
244 If you have advanced network configuration needs, you should probably
245 consider using the network tools from ip-route2.
246 
247 Packet Filter / NAT
248 -------------------
249 The packet filtering and NAT code uses the same tools like the previous 2.4.x
250 kernel series (iptables).  It still includes backwards-compatibility modules
251 for 2.2.x-style ipchains and 2.0.x-style ipfwadm.
252 
253 PPP
254 ---
255 
256 The PPP driver has been restructured to support multilink and to
257 enable it to operate over diverse media layers.  If you use PPP,
258 upgrade pppd to at least 2.4.0.
259 
260 If you are not using udev, you must have the device file /dev/ppp
261 which can be made by::
262 
263   mknod /dev/ppp c 108 0
264 
265 as root.
266 
267 Isdn4k-utils
268 ------------
269 
270 Due to changes in the length of the phone number field, isdn4k-utils
271 needs to be recompiled or (preferably) upgraded.
272 
273 NFS-utils
274 ---------
275 
276 In ancient (2.4 and earlier) kernels, the nfs server needed to know
277 about any client that expected to be able to access files via NFS.  This
278 information would be given to the kernel by ``mountd`` when the client
279 mounted the filesystem, or by ``exportfs`` at system startup.  exportfs
280 would take information about active clients from ``/var/lib/nfs/rmtab``.
281 
282 This approach is quite fragile as it depends on rmtab being correct
283 which is not always easy, particularly when trying to implement
284 fail-over.  Even when the system is working well, ``rmtab`` suffers from
285 getting lots of old entries that never get removed.
286 
287 With modern kernels we have the option of having the kernel tell mountd
288 when it gets a request from an unknown host, and mountd can give
289 appropriate export information to the kernel.  This removes the
290 dependency on ``rmtab`` and means that the kernel only needs to know about
291 currently active clients.
292 
293 To enable this new functionality, you need to::
294 
295   mount -t nfsd nfsd /proc/fs/nfsd
296 
297 before running exportfs or mountd.  It is recommended that all NFS
298 services be protected from the internet-at-large by a firewall where
299 that is possible.
300 
301 mcelog
302 ------
303 
304 On x86 kernels the mcelog utility is needed to process and log machine check
305 events when ``CONFIG_X86_MCE`` is enabled. Machine check events are errors
306 reported by the CPU. Processing them is strongly encouraged.
307 
308 Kernel documentation
309 ********************
310 
311 Sphinx
312 ------
313 
314 The ReST markups currently used by the Documentation/ files are meant to be
315 built with ``Sphinx`` version 1.2 or upper. If you're desiring to build
316 PDF outputs, it is recommended to use version 1.4.6.
317 
318 .. note::
319 
320   Please notice that, for PDF and LaTeX output, you'll also need ``XeLaTeX``
321   version 3.14159265. Depending on the distribution, you may also need
322   to install a series of ``texlive`` packages that provide the minimal
323   set of functionalities required for ``XeLaTex`` to work.
324 
325 Other tools
326 -----------
327 
328 In order to produce documentation from DocBook, you'll also need ``xmlto``.
329 Please notice, however, that we're currently migrating all documents to use
330 ``Sphinx``.
331 
332 Getting updated software
333 ========================
334 
335 Kernel compilation
336 ******************
337 
338 gcc
339 ---
340 
341 - <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/>
342 
343 Make
344 ----
345 
346 - <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/>
347 
348 Binutils
349 --------
350 
351 - <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/>
352 
353 OpenSSL
354 -------
355 
356 - <https://www.openssl.org/>
357 
358 System utilities
359 ****************
360 
361 Util-linux
362 ----------
363 
364 - <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/>
365 
366 Ksymoops
367 --------
368 
369 - <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/v2.4/>
370 
371 Module-Init-Tools
372 -----------------
373 
374 - <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/rusty/modules/>
375 
376 Mkinitrd
377 --------
378 
379 - <https://code.launchpad.net/initrd-tools/main>
380 
381 E2fsprogs
382 ---------
383 
384 - <http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/e2fsprogs/e2fsprogs-1.29.tar.gz>
385 
386 JFSutils
387 --------
388 
389 - <http://jfs.sourceforge.net/>
390 
391 Reiserfsprogs
392 -------------
393 
394 - <http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/reiserfs/>
395 
396 Xfsprogs
397 --------
398 
399 - <ftp://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/>
400 
401 Pcmciautils
402 -----------
403 
404 - <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/pcmcia/>
405 
406 Quota-tools
407 -----------
408 
409 - <http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota/>
410 
411 DocBook Stylesheets
412 -------------------
413 
414 - <http://sourceforge.net/projects/docbook/files/docbook-dsssl/>
415 
416 XMLTO XSLT Frontend
417 -------------------
418 
419 - <http://cyberelk.net/tim/xmlto/>
420 
421 Intel P6 microcode
422 ------------------
423 
424 - <https://downloadcenter.intel.com/>
425 
426 udev
427 ----
428 
429 - <http://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/udev.html>
430 
431 FUSE
432 ----
433 
434 - <http://sourceforge.net/projects/fuse>
435 
436 mcelog
437 ------
438 
439 - <http://www.mcelog.org/>
440 
441 Networking
442 **********
443 
444 PPP
445 ---
446 
447 - <ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/ppp/>
448 
449 Isdn4k-utils
450 ------------
451 
452 - <ftp://ftp.isdn4linux.de/pub/isdn4linux/utils/>
453 
454 NFS-utils
455 ---------
456 
457 - <http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=14>
458 
459 Iptables
460 --------
461 
462 - <http://www.iptables.org/downloads.html>
463 
464 Ip-route2
465 ---------
466 
467 - <https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/net/iproute2/>
468 
469 OProfile
470 --------
471 
472 - <http://oprofile.sf.net/download/>
473 
474 NFS-Utils
475 ---------
476 
477 - <http://nfs.sourceforge.net/>
478 
479 Kernel documentation
480 ********************
481 
482 Sphinx
483 ------
484 
485 - <http://www.sphinx-doc.org/>

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