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Linux/COPYING

  1 
  2    NOTE! This copyright does *not* cover user programs that use kernel
  3  services by normal system calls - this is merely considered normal use
  4  of the kernel, and does *not* fall under the heading of "derived work".
  5  Also note that the GPL below is copyrighted by the Free Software
  6  Foundation, but the instance of code that it refers to (the Linux
  7  kernel) is copyrighted by me and others who actually wrote it.
  8 
  9  Also note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as the kernel
 10  is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not
 11  v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated.
 12 
 13                         Linus Torvalds
 14 
 15 ----------------------------------------
 16 
 17                     GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
 18                        Version 2, June 1991
 19 
 20  Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 21                        59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
 22  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 23  of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
 24 
 25                             Preamble
 26 
 27   The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
 28 freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
 29 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
 30 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
 31 General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
 32 Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
 33 using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
 34 the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
 35 your programs, too.
 36 
 37   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
 38 price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
 39 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
 40 this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
 41 if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
 42 in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
 43 
 44   To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
 45 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
 46 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
 47 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
 48 
 49   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
 50 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
 51 you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
 52 source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
 53 rights.
 54 
 55   We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
 56 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
 57 distribute and/or modify the software.
 58 
 59   Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
 60 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
 61 software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
 62 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
 63 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
 64 authors' reputations.
 65 
 66   Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
 67 patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
 68 program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
 69 program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
 70 patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
 71 
 72   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
 73 modification follow.
 74 
 75                     GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
 76    TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
 77 
 78   0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
 79 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
 80 under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program", below,
 81 refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
 82 means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
 83 that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
 84 either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
 85 language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
 86 the term "modification".)  Each licensee is addressed as "you".
 87 
 88 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
 89 covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
 90 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
 91 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
 92 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
 93 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
 94 
 95   1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
 96 source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
 97 conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
 98 copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
 99 notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
100 and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
101 along with the Program.
102 
103 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
104 you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
105 
106   2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
107 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
108 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
109 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
110 
111     a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
112     stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
113 
114     b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
115     whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
116     part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
117     parties under the terms of this License.
118 
119     c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
120     when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
121     interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
122     announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
123     notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
124     a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
125     these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
126     License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
127     does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
128     the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
129 
130 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
131 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
132 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
133 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
134 sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
135 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
136 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
137 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
138 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
139 
140 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
141 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
142 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
143 collective works based on the Program.
144 
145 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
146 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
147 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
148 the scope of this License.
149 
150   3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
151 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
152 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
153 
154     a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
155     source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
156     1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
157 
158     b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
159     years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
160     cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
161     machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
162     distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
163     customarily used for software interchange; or,
164 
165     c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
166     to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
167     allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
168     received the program in object code or executable form with such
169     an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
170 
171 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
172 making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
173 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
174 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
175 control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
176 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
177 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
178 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
179 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
180 itself accompanies the executable.
181 
182 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
183 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
184 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
185 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
186 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
187 
188   4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
189 except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
190 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
191 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
192 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
193 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
194 parties remain in full compliance.
195 
196   5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
197 signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
198 distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
199 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
200 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
201 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
202 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
203 the Program or works based on it.
204 
205   6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
206 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
207 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
208 these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
209 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
210 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
211 this License.
212 
213   7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
214 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
215 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
216 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
217 excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
218 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
219 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
220 may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
221 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
222 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
223 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
224 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
225 
226 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
227 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
228 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
229 circumstances.
230 
231 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
232 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
233 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
234 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
235 implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
236 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
237 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
238 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
239 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
240 impose that choice.
241 
242 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
243 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
244 
245   8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
246 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
247 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
248 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
249 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
250 countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
251 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
252 
253   9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
254 of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
255 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
256 address new problems or concerns.
257 
258 Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
259 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
260 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
261 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
262 Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
263 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
264 Foundation.
265 
266   10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
267 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
268 to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
269 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
270 make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
271 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
272 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
273 
274                             NO WARRANTY
275 
276   11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
277 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN
278 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
279 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
280 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
281 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
282 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
283 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
284 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
285 
286   12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
287 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
288 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
289 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
290 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
291 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
292 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
293 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
294 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
295 
296                      END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
297 
298             How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
299 
300   If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
301 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
302 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
303 
304   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
305 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
306 convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
307 the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
308 
309     <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
310     Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
311 
312     This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
313     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
314     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
315     (at your option) any later version.
316 
317     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
318     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
319     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
320     GNU General Public License for more details.
321 
322     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
323     along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
324     Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
325 
326 
327 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
328 
329 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
330 when it starts in an interactive mode:
331 
332     Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
333     Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
334     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
335     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
336 
337 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
338 parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the commands you use may
339 be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
340 mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
341 
342 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
343 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
344 necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:
345 
346   Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
347   `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
348 
349   <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
350   Ty Coon, President of Vice
351 
352 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
353 proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
354 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
355 library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
356 Public License instead of this License.

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