Version:  2.0.40 2.2.26 2.4.37 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10

Linux/README

Diff markup

Differences between /README (Version 4.10) and /README (Version 2.2.26)


  1 Linux kernel                                   !!   1         Linux kernel release 2.2.xx
  2 ============                                   << 
  3                                                     2 
  4 This file was moved to Documentation/admin-gui !!   3 These are the release notes for Linux version 2.2.  Read them carefully,
                                                   >>   4 as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
                                                   >>   5 kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong. 
  5                                                     6 
  6 Please notice that there are several guides fo !!   7 However, please make sure you don't ask questions which are already answered
  7 These guides can be rendered in a number of fo !!   8 in various files in the Documentation directory.  See DOCUMENTATION below.
  8                                                     9 
  9 In order to build the documentation, use ``mak !!  10 WHAT IS LINUX?
 10 ``make pdfdocs``.                              << 
 11                                                    11 
 12 There are various text files in the Documentat !!  12   Linux is a Unix clone written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with
 13 several of them using the Restructured Text ma !!  13   assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net.
 14 See Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what  !!  14   It aims towards POSIX compliance. 
                                                   >>  15 
                                                   >>  16   It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged
                                                   >>  17   Unix, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries,
                                                   >>  18   demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory
                                                   >>  19   management and TCP/IP networking. 
                                                   >>  20 
                                                   >>  21   It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the
                                                   >>  22   accompanying COPYING file for more details. 
                                                   >>  23 
                                                   >>  24 ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN?
                                                   >>  25 
                                                   >>  26   Linux was first developed for 386/486-based PCs.  These days it also
                                                   >>  27   runs on ARMs, DEC Alphas, SUN Sparcs, M68000 machines (like Atari and
                                                   >>  28   Amiga), MIPS and PowerPC, and others.
                                                   >>  29 
                                                   >>  30 DOCUMENTATION:
                                                   >>  31 
                                                   >>  32  - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
                                                   >>  33    the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
                                                   >>  34    general UNIX questions.  I'd recommend looking into the documentation
                                                   >>  35    subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation
                                                   >>  36    Project) books.  This README is not meant to be documentation on the
                                                   >>  37    system: there are much better sources available.
                                                   >>  38 
                                                   >>  39  - There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory:
                                                   >>  40    these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some 
                                                   >>  41    drivers for example. See ./Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what
                                                   >>  42    is contained in each file.  Please read the Changes file, as it
                                                   >>  43    contains information about the problems, which may result by upgrading
                                                   >>  44    your kernel.
                                                   >>  45 
                                                   >>  46 INSTALLING the kernel:
                                                   >>  47 
                                                   >>  48  - If you install the full sources, do a
                                                   >>  49 
                                                   >>  50                 cd /usr/src
                                                   >>  51                 gzip -cd linux-2.2.XX.tar.gz | tar xfv -
                                                   >>  52 
                                                   >>  53    to get it all put in place. Replace "XX" with the version number of the
                                                   >>  54    latest kernel.
                                                   >>  55 
                                                   >>  56  - You can also upgrade between 2.2.xx releases by patching.  Patches are
                                                   >>  57    distributed in the traditional gzip and the new bzip2 format.  To
                                                   >>  58    install by patching, get all the newer patch files and do
                                                   >>  59 
                                                   >>  60                 cd /usr/src
                                                   >>  61                 gzip -cd patchXX.gz | patch -p0
                                                   >>  62 
                                                   >>  63    or
                                                   >>  64                 cd /usr/src
                                                   >>  65                 bzip2 -dc patchXX.bz2 | patch -p0
                                                   >>  66 
                                                   >>  67    (repeat xx for all versions bigger than the version of your current
                                                   >>  68    source tree, _in_order_) and you should be ok.  You may want to remove
                                                   >>  69    the backup files (xxx~ or xxx.orig), and make sure that there are no
                                                   >>  70    failed patches (xxx# or xxx.rej). If there are, either you or me has
                                                   >>  71    made a mistake.
                                                   >>  72 
                                                   >>  73    Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
                                                   >>  74    process.  It determines the current kernel version and applies any
                                                   >>  75    patches found.
                                                   >>  76 
                                                   >>  77                 cd /usr/src
                                                   >>  78                 linux/scripts/patch-kernel
                                                   >>  79 
                                                   >>  80    The default directory for the kernel source is /usr/src/linux, but
                                                   >>  81    can be specified as the first argument.  Patches are applied from
                                                   >>  82    the current directory, but an alternative directory can be specified
                                                   >>  83    as the second argument.
                                                   >>  84 
                                                   >>  85  - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around:
                                                   >>  86 
                                                   >>  87                 cd /usr/src/linux
                                                   >>  88                 make mrproper
                                                   >>  89 
                                                   >>  90    You should now have the sources correctly installed.
                                                   >>  91 
                                                   >>  92 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
                                                   >>  93 
                                                   >>  94    Compiling and running the 2.2.xx kernels requires up-to-date
                                                   >>  95    versions of various software packages.  Consult
                                                   >>  96    ./Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required
                                                   >>  97    and how to get updates for these packages.  Beware that using
                                                   >>  98    excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
                                                   >>  99    errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
                                                   >> 100    you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
                                                   >> 101    build or operation.
                                                   >> 102 
                                                   >> 103 CONFIGURING the kernel:
                                                   >> 104 
                                                   >> 105  - Do a "make config" to configure the basic kernel.  "make config" needs
                                                   >> 106    bash to work: it will search for bash in $BASH, /bin/bash and /bin/sh
                                                   >> 107    (in that order), so one of those must be correct for it to work. 
                                                   >> 108 
                                                   >> 109    Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
                                                   >> 110    version.  New configuration options are added in each release, and
                                                   >> 111    odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
                                                   >> 112    as expected.  If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
                                                   >> 113    new version with minimal work, use "make oldconfig", which will
                                                   >> 114    only ask you for the answers to new questions.
                                                   >> 115 
                                                   >> 116  - Alternate configuration commands are:
                                                   >> 117         "make menuconfig"  Text based color menus, radiolists & dialogs.
                                                   >> 118         "make xconfig"     X windows based configuration tool.
                                                   >> 119         "make oldconfig"   Default all questions based on the contents of
                                                   >> 120                            your existing ./.config file.
                                                   >> 121    
                                                   >> 122         NOTES on "make config":
                                                   >> 123         - having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can
                                                   >> 124           under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a
                                                   >> 125           nonexistent controller card may confuse your other controllers
                                                   >> 126         - compiling the kernel with "Processor type" set higher than 386
                                                   >> 127           will result in a kernel that does NOT work on a 386.  The
                                                   >> 128           kernel will detect this on bootup, and give up.
                                                   >> 129         - A kernel with math-emulation compiled in will still use the
                                                   >> 130           coprocessor if one is present: the math emulation will just
                                                   >> 131           never get used in that case.  The kernel will be slightly larger,
                                                   >> 132           but will work on different machines regardless of whether they
                                                   >> 133           have a math coprocessor or not. 
                                                   >> 134         - the "kernel hacking" configuration details usually result in a
                                                   >> 135           bigger or slower kernel (or both), and can even make the kernel
                                                   >> 136           less stable by configuring some routines to actively try to
                                                   >> 137           break bad code to find kernel problems (kmalloc()).  Thus you
                                                   >> 138           should probably answer 'n' to the questions for
                                                   >> 139           "development", "experimental", or "debugging" features.
                                                   >> 140 
                                                   >> 141  - Check the top Makefile for further site-dependent configuration
                                                   >> 142    (default SVGA mode etc). 
                                                   >> 143 
                                                   >> 144  - Finally, do a "make dep" to set up all the dependencies correctly. 
                                                   >> 145 
                                                   >> 146 COMPILING the kernel:
                                                   >> 147 
                                                   >> 148  - Make sure you have gcc-2.7.2 or newer available.  It seems older gcc
                                                   >> 149    versions can have problems compiling newer versions of Linux.  This
                                                   >> 150    is mainly because the older compilers can only generate "a.out"-format
                                                   >> 151    executables.  As of Linux 2.1.0, the kernel must be compiled as an
                                                   >> 152    "ELF" binary.  If you upgrade your compiler, remember to get the new
                                                   >> 153    binutils package too (for as/ld/nm and company).
                                                   >> 154 
                                                   >> 155    Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this
                                                   >> 156    kernel.
                                                   >> 157 
                                                   >> 158  - Do a "make zImage" to create a compressed kernel image.  If you want
                                                   >> 159    to make a boot disk (without root filesystem or LILO), insert a floppy
                                                   >> 160    in your A: drive, and do a "make zdisk".  It is also possible to do
                                                   >> 161    "make zlilo" if you have lilo installed to suit the kernel makefiles,
                                                   >> 162    but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first. 
                                                   >> 163 
                                                   >> 164  - If your kernel is too large for "make zImage", use "make bzImage"
                                                   >> 165    instead.
                                                   >> 166 
                                                   >> 167  - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as `modules', you
                                                   >> 168    will have to do "make modules" followed by "make modules_install".
                                                   >> 169    Read Documentation/modules.txt for more information.  For example,
                                                   >> 170    an explanation of how to use the modules is included there.
                                                   >> 171 
                                                   >> 172  - Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong.  This is 
                                                   >> 173    especially true for the development releases, since each new release
                                                   >> 174    contains new code which has not been debugged.  Make sure you keep a
                                                   >> 175    backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well.  If you
                                                   >> 176    are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your
                                                   >> 177    working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you
                                                   >> 178    do a "make modules_install".
                                                   >> 179 
                                                   >> 180  - In order to boot your new kernel, you'll need to copy the kernel
                                                   >> 181    image (found in /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/zImage after compilation)
                                                   >> 182    to the place where your regular bootable kernel is found. 
                                                   >> 183 
                                                   >> 184    For some, this is on a floppy disk, in which case you can "cp
                                                   >> 185    /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/zImage /dev/fd0" to make a bootable
                                                   >> 186    floppy.  Please note that you can not boot a kernel by
                                                   >> 187    directly dumping it to a 720k double-density 3.5" floppy.  In this
                                                   >> 188    case, it is highly recommended that you install LILO on your
                                                   >> 189    double-density boot floppy or switch to high-density floppies.
                                                   >> 190 
                                                   >> 191    If you boot Linux from the hard drive, chances are you use LILO which
                                                   >> 192    uses the kernel image as specified in the file /etc/lilo.conf.  The
                                                   >> 193    kernel image file is usually /vmlinuz, or /zImage, or /etc/zImage. 
                                                   >> 194    To use the new kernel, save a copy of the old image and copy the new
                                                   >> 195    image over the old one.  Then, you MUST RERUN LILO to update the
                                                   >> 196    loading map!! If you don't, you won't be able to boot the new kernel
                                                   >> 197    image. 
                                                   >> 198 
                                                   >> 199    Reinstalling LILO is usually a matter of running /sbin/lilo. 
                                                   >> 200    You may wish to edit /etc/lilo.conf to specify an entry for your
                                                   >> 201    old kernel image (say, /vmlinux.old) in case the new one does not
                                                   >> 202    work.  See the LILO docs for more information. 
                                                   >> 203 
                                                   >> 204    After reinstalling LILO, you should be all set.  Shutdown the system,
                                                   >> 205    reboot, and enjoy!
                                                   >> 206 
                                                   >> 207    If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode,
                                                   >> 208    ramdisk size, etc.  in the kernel image, use the 'rdev' program (or
                                                   >> 209    alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate).  No need to
                                                   >> 210    recompile the kernel to change these parameters. 
                                                   >> 211 
                                                   >> 212  - Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy. 
                                                   >> 213 
                                                   >> 214 IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:
                                                   >> 215 
                                                   >> 216  - If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check
                                                   >> 217    the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated
                                                   >> 218    with the part of the kernel that you are having trouble with. If there
                                                   >> 219    isn't anyone listed there, then the second best thing is to mail
                                                   >> 220    them to me (torvalds@transmeta.com), and possibly to any other
                                                   >> 221    relevant mailing-list or to the newsgroup.  The mailing-lists are
                                                   >> 222    useful especially for SCSI and networking problems, as I can't test
                                                   >> 223    either of those personally anyway. 
                                                   >> 224 
                                                   >> 225  - In all bug-reports, *please* tell what kernel you are talking about,
                                                   >> 226    how to duplicate the problem, and what your setup is (use your common
                                                   >> 227    sense).  If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is
                                                   >> 228    old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it.
                                                   >> 229 
                                                   >> 230  - If the bug results in a message like
                                                   >> 231 
                                                   >> 232         unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010
                                                   >> 233         Oops: 0002
                                                   >> 234         EIP:   0010:XXXXXXXX
                                                   >> 235         eax: xxxxxxxx   ebx: xxxxxxxx   ecx: xxxxxxxx   edx: xxxxxxxx
                                                   >> 236         esi: xxxxxxxx   edi: xxxxxxxx   ebp: xxxxxxxx
                                                   >> 237         ds: xxxx  es: xxxx  fs: xxxx  gs: xxxx
                                                   >> 238         Pid: xx, process nr: xx
                                                   >> 239         xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
                                                   >> 240 
                                                   >> 241    or similar kernel debugging information on your screen or in your
                                                   >> 242    system log, please duplicate it *exactly*.  The dump may look
                                                   >> 243    incomprehensible to you, but it does contain information that may
                                                   >> 244    help debugging the problem.  The text above the dump is also
                                                   >> 245    important: it tells something about why the kernel dumped code (in
                                                   >> 246    the above example it's due to a bad kernel pointer). More information
                                                   >> 247    on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt
                                                   >> 248 
                                                   >> 249  - You can use the "ksymoops" program to make sense of the dump.  Find
                                                   >> 250    the C++ sources under the scripts/ directory to avoid having to do
                                                   >> 251    the dump lookup by hand:
                                                   >> 252 
                                                   >> 253  - In debugging dumps like the above, it helps enormously if you can
                                                   >> 254    look up what the EIP value means.  The hex value as such doesn't help
                                                   >> 255    me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular
                                                   >> 256    kernel setup.  What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP
                                                   >> 257    line (ignore the "0010:"), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
                                                   >> 258    see which kernel function contains the offending address.
                                                   >> 259 
                                                   >> 260    To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system
                                                   >> 261    binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom.  This is
                                                   >> 262    the file 'linux/vmlinux'.  To extract the namelist and match it against
                                                   >> 263    the EIP from the kernel crash, do:
                                                   >> 264 
                                                   >> 265                 nm vmlinux | sort | less
                                                   >> 266 
                                                   >> 267    This will give you a list of kernel addresses sorted in ascending
                                                   >> 268    order, from which it is simple to find the function that contains the
                                                   >> 269    offending address.  Note that the address given by the kernel
                                                   >> 270    debugging messages will not necessarily match exactly with the
                                                   >> 271    function addresses (in fact, that is very unlikely), so you can't
                                                   >> 272    just 'grep' the list: the list will, however, give you the starting
                                                   >> 273    point of each kernel function, so by looking for the function that
                                                   >> 274    has a starting address lower than the one you are searching for but
                                                   >> 275    is followed by a function with a higher address you will find the one
                                                   >> 276    you want.  In fact, it may be a good idea to include a bit of
                                                   >> 277    "context" in your problem report, giving a few lines around the
                                                   >> 278    interesting one. 
                                                   >> 279 
                                                   >> 280    If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled
                                                   >> 281    kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as
                                                   >> 282    possible will help. 
                                                   >> 283 
                                                   >> 284  - Alternately, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you
                                                   >> 285    cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the
                                                   >> 286    kernel with -g; edit arch/i386/Makefile appropriately, then do a "make
                                                   >> 287    clean". You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via "make config").
                                                   >> 288 
                                                   >> 289    After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do "gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore".
                                                   >> 290    You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the
                                                   >> 291    point where your system crashed is "l *0xXXXXXXXX". (Replace the XXXes
                                                   >> 292    with the EIP value.)
                                                   >> 293 
                                                   >> 294    gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because gdb (wrongly)
                                                   >> 295    disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.
 15                                                   296 
 16 Please read the Documentation/process/changes. << 
 17 requirements for building and running the kern << 
 18 the problems which may result by upgrading you << 
                                                      

This page was automatically generated by LXR 0.3.1 (source).  •  Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds  •  Contact us